placed in context of the recently approved ASTM Practice E alternative means of executing this ASTM Practice, its objective being to minimize . E – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Referenced Documents ASTM Standards:3 D Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity. improper air/fuel ratio. There are test methods for laboratory grade FTIR measurement as well as for portable field testing. ASTM E describes the standard.
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ASTM E – standard practice for Condition Monitoring of Used Lubricants by FT-IR Spectrometry.
The breakdown II region is also highlighted in Fig. Calculations should be made based on the actual amount of glycol-based antifreeze added, not on the amount of the Since no single product is formed, standard materials are not available to generate the calibration curves needed to relate absorbance to concentration.
A wider range for the baseline points can be used to achieve better sensitivity, although this caused a reduction in the selectivity. Here, there are a large number of different oxidation and nitration compounds that can be produced and gradually build up in the oil.
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NOTE 8—Phosphate antiwear is a negative peak height since it represents additive depletion compared to the new oil. A common method is to locate 2e412 secondary phase-delayed centerburst in the interferrogram recorded for the empty cell and remove it by computer manipulation.
The most common degradation pathway in ester based lubricants is the conversion of the ester into organic acids and alcohols. Do not use plastic containers. NOTE 1—Calibrated methods for water and ethylene glycol are developed using standard preparations of water or ethylene glycol in appropriate used oil matrices.
Instead, an offset of the asym baseline due to light scattering and absorption is observed.
Measurement and data interpretation parameters are presented to allow operators of different FT-IR spectrometers to compare results by employing the same techniques. It e24412 better to make a choice of lubricant type and use it consistently if the oil type is not known.
Last previous edition approved in as E— Home E E July 24, Author: Mixing, sonicating or mechanical shaking for at least 15 minutes is considered adequate. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
A baseline point at cm-1 is used. It is usually only a consideration in diesel engines but could be indicative of carburetor or injector problems with other fuel systems. NOTE 6—Oxidation region for lubricant blends with diesters base oil can be adjusted to to Typically a warning or alert level will be used as an early indication of a potential problem, and an alarm level will be used as an indication of the need for immediate corrective action.
While soot has no specific frequency of absorption in the infrared spectrum, it causes a shift in the baseline of the spectrum due to absorption and scattering of light. Contaminants monitored include water, soot, ethylene glycol, fuels and incorrect oil.
In the case where salt windows are used, when oil is introduced into the cell the fringe pattern is made much weaker because the refractive index of the salt window is relatively close to that of an oil sample. However, water levels of this magnitude will immediately condemn the lubricant. A peak area over this range is used as is depicted in Fig.
ASTM E2412 – 10
Molecular analysis of lubricants and hydraulic fluids by FT-IR spectroscopy produces asstm information on molecular species of interest, including additives, fluid breakdown products and external contaminants, and thus complements wear metal and other analyses used in a condition monitoring program 13- 2.
The magnitude of this offset is determined by the particle size of the soot as well as its concentration.
The materials leading to this feature are nitrate esters. Certain of the components are not calibrated, including oxidation, nitration, sulfation, soot, and phosphate antiwear additive. A number of physical property tests complement wear metal analysis and are used to provide information on lubricant condition for example, Test Methods D, Asstm, and D The objective of this monitoring activity is to xstm the operational condition of the machine based on fault conditions observed in the oil. Wear metal analysis, particle counting or other applicable tests should condemn gear and hydraulic systems that manifest such extreme particulate levels.
Various additive packages, such as detergents, dispersants, antioxidants, overbase additives, etc. Work is currently active on other IR measurement areas and techniques. This practice is designed for monitoring in-service lubricants and can aid in the determination of general machinery health and is not designed for the analysis of lubricant composition, lubricant performance or additive package formulations. As previously noted, building calibration curves for measurement parameters when pure or prepared standards are available is possible.
Beyond this point the behavior of water in petroleum lubricants becomes very nonlinear when measured astn lubricating oil by an optical measurement technique such e22412 infrared. Water is detected using a broad asrm, centered around cm-1, that is caused by stretching of the hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl -OH group. This band is a fairly specific measure of over basing additive consumption and directly relates to the TBN assay for engine oils.