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Of the 40 subjects, 15 had delusions only, 2 had hallucinations only, and 23 had a combination of the two. Each subject was assigned a foopersmith, which was used by the raters when they were completing the ratings. To investigate the hypothesis that the content of delusions and hallucinations is significantly influenced by subjects global self-esteem and by 5 specific areas of self-esteem.

The 6-point scale ranged from very negative to very positive. The most frequent were delusions of reference [37], persecution [29], grandiose delusions [23], and delusions of control [16]. The remainder of the scales coopersmiith designed for the present study.

Seven patients refused to take part in the study for reasons that suggested a fear of manipulation or persecution. Forty subjects gave informed consent and completed the study within 2 weeks. Procedure Competent subjects who provided informed consent were interviewed within 14 days of admission using the PSE. The other measured the enhancingdiminishing effects of each delusion or hallucination, such as the degree to which each made them feel better or worse about themselves.

Method Subjects The study took place on 2 inpatient units, one a general adult unit and the other a chronic schizophrenia unit.

Waham Original Research Inggris

The raters completed their assessments independently. These clusters represent relatively independent areas of self-esteem.


By d, Federn believes that psychosis itself is not a defence but a defeat 5. The raters were 2 inpatient psychiatrists who were blind to subjects scores and to the identity of the subjects.

Kokenes confirmed the construct validity of the subscales as measuring sources of self-esteem 9, Two of these scales rated subjects cooperamith to each delusion or hallucination they experienced. Three scales were designed for use by the raters.

Auditory hallucinations were most frequent [30], followed by visual [19], tactile [4], olfactory [3], ce gustatory [2] hallucinations. Testretest reliability of the SRS is significant beyond the 0. Hallucinations have been found by Miller and others and Romme and others to enhance self-concept and self-esteem 2,3. Kaney and Bentall suggest that delusions of persecution maintain self-esteem contenh attributing blame for negative events to other people or circumstances 4.

For delusions, the mean comfort level was 2. Less frequent were thought insertion [9], thought broadcasting [8], somatic delusions [7], delusions of guilt [7], thought withdrawal [7], thought reading [6], religious delusions [4], delusions of jealousy [2], delusions of catastrophe [2], delusions of thought control [1], and sexual delusions [1].

The mean enhancement effect was 2. Factor analysis of the SRS produced 5 clusters of self-esteem: Alternatively, if the content of delusions and hallucinations coopersmiyh self-esteem, lower self-esteem would produce more favourable, self-enhancing content. These are lower than the scores reported for the general population of The sections assessing delusions and hallucinations were used in this study.

The delusions and hallucinations of 40 psychotic patients were assessed by 2 independent raters for content indicative of positive or negative self-esteem and for the extent to which the ds content would be self-enhancing or diminishing and comforting or discomforting to the subject.

Waham Original Research Inggris – [DOC Document]

Global self-esteem and specific areas of self-esteem are meaningful constructs derived from conscious and unconscious self-assessments. Can J Psychiatry ; The content of delusions reflects both global self-esteem and self-regard. The mean comfort level and enhancement effect for hallucinations were somewhat lower at 2.


The lowest shared variance is for school and work abilities and physical appearance 0. Reliability coefficients for internal stability were 0. This was a forced choice with no neutral 0 rating provided. One scale measured comfortdiscomfort on a 6-point scale ranging from very comfortable to very uncomfortable. The SEI measures global self-esteem 7. Testretest reliability coopeesmith 0.

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Delusional content is therefore consistent with patients views of themselves, and this may ciopersmith account for the persistence of delusions. The PSE is a structured interview that focuses mainly on the psychotic symptoms a subject has experienced during the preceding month 6.

Categories of Delusions and Hallucinations One hundred and fifty-nine delusions were reported by the 40 subjects mean 3.

Following the structured interview, subjects completed contehu SEI and SRS, and this ended their participation in the study. Both were at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, a university-affiliated teaching centre in Toronto, Canada.

This increased the probability that overvalued ideas and illusions were excluded. Adult and child forms of the inventory have been developed, and over studies have assessed the reliability and validity of these measures.

This pattern indicates that these 6 areas of self-esteem are partially independent but also share varying amounts of overlap. Higher self-esteem would not need to be defended against and would cntenu result in more varied content.